Que.1. From which two languages ​​did the word sociology originate?

Ans. Sociology is called Sociology in English. The word sociology is derived from the Latin word Socius and the Greek word Logus. Socius means society and Logus means science. Thus it is clear from this literal meaning that sociology is the science that studies society.

Que.2. Mention three problems faced by the girl child.

Ans.The following are the three problems faced by the girls
(i) Negligence towards sending girls to school – Even today in poor families they shy away from sending girls to school and make them do domestic work. Due to this they are not able to get education.
(ii) The problem of dropping out of education in the middle – girls are initially encouraged to get admission in the school. But when due to their studies, there is a negative effect on the normal functioning of the household and the source of income, then their studies are abandoned. This is the reason that almost 70 percent of girls are unable to go to school after primary education.
(iii) Problem of child marriage – In rural areas, girls are married in low income, due to which their health deteriorates on the one hand, they become mothers at an early age, the responsibility of the family comes, On the other hand, getting education becomes debarred. Due to which the development of personality gets stunted.

Que.3. Write two lines about cultural unity among diversity.

Ans. People of different religion, language and caste live in India. Despite these differences, we Indians are united in the matter of cultural unity.

Que.4. Describe two main features of the Varna system.

Ans. The following are the two main features of the Varna system
(i) There is segmental division in the Varna system.
(ii) Varna system is based on birth.

Que.5. Write two objectives of Brahmacharya Ashram.
Ans. Brahmacharya Ashram has two objectives:
To acquire knowledge, to have experience of life useful work.

Que.6. What is the meaning of religion in Hindu culture?

Ans. Religion has great importance in Hindu culture. But we should not consider Hindu culture as worshipers of deities, fasting and celebrating Hindu festivals. Rather, Hindutva should be seen as a way of life transcending culture. In Hindu culture, religion teaches to bind all human beings in one thread. –

Que.7. Mention two changes that take place in Hindu marriage.

Ans. Following are the two changes that take place in Hindu marriage:
(i) The evil practice of dowry like dowry has been introduced in Hindu marriage.
(ii) Inter-caste marriage has started spreading in Hinduism.

Que.8. Discuss the differences in Indian society.

Ans.India is a vast and ancient country. For this reason people of many religions, races, castes, languages, customs and sub-cultures are found in it. There are many social differences among them. Natural and geographical diversity is also not less. For historical reasons, divisive tendencies like regionalism, provincialism and communalism are found. Thus Indian society is full of differences.

Que.9. What is racism?

Ans. The feeling of devotion and closeness in the caste is called casteism. Casteism is the establishment of caste organizations to provide more opportunities and facilities to the members of their caste in the caste reform, progress and economic political field. Casteism is blind group devotion which strives for the fulfillment of the interests of the self-caste by neglecting or harming the right-unfair, social justice and wider social or national interests. In simple words, casteism is narrow caste devotion.

Que.10. Who are Scheduled Castes?

Ans. Untouchability is the result of class-division itself, so the disabilities and social discrimination related to it have also been associated with the history of caste-system. The Manusmriti states that, “Chandalas’ and ‘Svapachas’ should live outside the village, should not come to the settlement during the day and confine the use of their utensils to themselves” thus in Manusmriti and Dharmashastras these castes are Untouchables were banned. In 1931, the Census Commissioner of Assam addressed them in the name of ‘outsider-caste’. In 1935, the Simon Commission named the untouchable castes as ‘Scheduled Castes’.


Que.11. What is the role of economic factor in social change?

Ans.Social change is a universal process in which many factors contribute. The economic factors of social change include consumption, production, exchange, distribution, economic policies. When most of the people of the society have mobilized the means and facilities of consumption, then the standard of living is normal and the pace of social change is also normal. But when the standard of living falls due to not being able to mobilize the means of consumption and the pace of change gets hindered. The nature of production in the society also affects the social system. Marx also said that social change occurs due to change in the mode of production.

Que.12. . Describe the importance of youth home in primitive society.

Ans. Youth Griha is a healthy center of entertainment in the Tribal Social Organization. It also helps young men and women to choose the life partner of their choice. Living and working together encourages mutual harmony and unity among them.

Que.13. What is National Integration?

Ans. There has been a direct link between socio-religious reform and national consciousness in India. Religious superstitions and social malpractices divide the society into small pieces by increasing various types of discrimination. With the efforts of social reform, when religious narrow-mindedness starts decreasing and the consciousness of social equality increases, which is transformed into national unity.

Que. 14. Define Prajapatya marriage.

Ans. Under this, the father of the girl donates her daughter to the groom, giving blessings to the bride and groom to practice lifelong religion. It is not necessary for the father to give gifts of jewelery and clothes in this marriage. This type of marriage is made for poor or ordinary persons.

Que. 15. Explain the avoidance kinship relationship.

Ans. Avoidance Kinship Relationship: These are the methods of kinship behavior. Under this, some special relatives are prohibited from coming close to each other or having a close relationship with each other. For example, the relation of father-in-law and son-bride

Que. 16. What is Anulom Vivah?

Ans.Anulom is the rule according to which a man is allowed to marry himself or a woman of lower caste than himself. In the beginning, the Aryans made anuloma marriage so that Aryan women could not marry Dravidian men, but Aryan men were married to Dravidian women.
get opportunities to do so. When the Aryans also got divided over many years, then Anulom marriage was made mandatory to give more prestige to the higher varnas on the basis of marriage.



Que. 17, Define urbanisation.

Ans. Urbanization refers to the transformation of rural areas into urbanization areas and the expansion of the characteristics of urban life to other areas. As a result of urbanization, there have been extensive changes in our traditional family system, caste system, status of women, social structure, religious beliefs, rural social structure, economic system etc.

Que. 18. Mention the process of social change.

Ans. When there is a change in the situation and role of individuals, mutual relations and accepted ways of life in a society, then this condition is called social change. All our behavior in society is influenced by some or the other social rule. Whenever there is a change in these social rules, values ​​and social relations, the structure of the society also changes.

Que. 19. Explain the concept of triple talaq.

Ans. Earlier it used to happen that according to Muslim personal law whenever the husband used to utter the word talaq thrice as per his wish, then his relationship with the wife was severed and after the divorce i.e. for three months, maintenance had to be given. . But triple talaq has been declared illegal by making an act.

Que. 20. . What is class consciousness?

Ans. The idea of ​​class consciousness is mainly given by Karl Marx. It is this awareness, which is crucial to fueling a revolution that will create the dictatorship of the proletariat, turning it from a wage-income asset to a lesser mass ruling class.


Que. 21. Define community.

Ans. The word community is the Hindi version of the English language community. This word is formed from the combination of two Latin words Com and Munis. Com means together or together, Munis means serving. The mixed meaning of both is to serve together. With regard to community, MacIver and Page wrote – “Community is an area of ​​social life identified by the degree of social affiliation.”

Que. 22. What is Neo-colonialism?

Ans. In the present era of democracy and independent sovereignty, no country can dominate the other.
cannot entitle. Even after this, today developed and powerful countries are forcing weak countries to accept their conditions through their economic and military power. This condition is called neo-colonialism. In the present era, the increasing economic influence of multinational companies in the name of globalization, expansion of their markets through liberalization and diplomatic tricks brought in business on the principle of human rights are various forms of neo-colonialism.

Que. 23. Discuss the establishment of the Swadeshi Movement in India.

Ans. The Swadeshi movement in England in the seventh decade of the nineteenth century due to the growing conflicts between the industrialists and the common Indians. which became an integral part of the national movement. This movement was started in Bengal by Rajnarayan Basu. He established a ‘National Spirit Promotion Committee’ in 1861. Its purpose was to give inspiration to use indigenous goods and to use their mother tongue. Its purpose was also to encourage indigenous industries and to inculcate the spirit of use of indigenous goods among the countrymen.



Que. 24. Explain the relationship between illiteracy and population growth.

Ans. There is a strong relationship between illiteracy and population growth. Most of the people do not understand the disadvantages of having more children in the family due to illiteracy. They are clinging to some such stereotypes and superstitions which are hindering the progress of the society.

Que. 25. What do you understand by liberal nationalism since time immemorial?

Ans. Moderates or moderates are called those leaders in whose hands the Congress had the reins of the national movement in India. The principles and methodology of liberal nationalists can be seen as follows: During the period of liberal nationalism, not only did the leaders of the Congress show their loyalty and devotion to the British rule, but it was also their principle that the unity of England and India was therefore necessary. That both have the same interests.

Que. 26. Differentiate between tribal community and rural community.

Ans. Following are the differences between tribal community and rural community
(i) There is no hierarchy or caste distinction among the members of a tribe. But among the people of the rural community, high and low or caste-discrimination is found.
(ii) Each tribe has its own language which connects all the people of that tribe to each other. But different castes do not have different languages ​​in the rural community.

Que. 27. . Explain the concept of class.

Ans. Generally, class refers to a group of individuals who have almost the same social status. The social status within a class is determined not on the basis of birth but on the basis of qualities and abilities.



Que. 28. What do you understand by youth home?

Ans One of the importance of Yuva Griha is to help in the choice of life partner and to provide sex education to the younger generation. In this, older boys and girls impart knowledge to younger boys and girls. Majumdar said that tribal people are trained here in economic, religious, social and magical activities. The sense of morality is inculcated in the members and knowledge is made about crime, justice, tradition, culture etc.

Que. 29. What is the Prime Minister’s Employment Scheme?

Ans Pradhan Mantri Rozgar Yojana was started from 1994-95. This scheme was started with the aim of providing employment to the educated unemployed in rural and urban areas of the country. Through this scheme, loans are provided to rural and urban educated unemployed youth for setting up their own industries/services/businesses so that they can become self-reliant.

Que. 30. What is black money?

Ans. Black money is an economic and social problem. It creates inequality and despair in the society. Black money is income on which tax has not been paid. It is a difficult task to calculate the actual amount of black money in any country, it can only be estimated. There are many reasons responsible for giving rise to black money in the country like (i) impractical tax rules (ii) different rates of excise tax (iii) control policy (iv) quota system (v) lack of commodities (vi) inflation (vii) ) elections etc. Black money has a bad effect on the exchequer, increases inequality in the society and thwarts the plans of economic development. It gives rise to crimes in the society. And creates frustration among honest people. Measures to stop (i) The growth of black money can be stopped by reducing the tax rate. (ii) The growth of black money can also be stopped by curbing administrative corruption and liberalizing government control.

Que. 31. Describe the different types of unemployment.

Ans. Following are the types of unemployment
(i) Seasonal Unemployment – ​​The nature of some industries or business is such that they operate only for a few months in a whole year. For example, a snow and sugar mill works only for 6-7 months in a year. In the remaining months the workers engaged in these industries remain idle. Therefore, this type of unemployment is called seasonal unemployment. (ii) Accidental Unemployment – ​​It is the unemployment which arises suddenly as a result of sudden increase in the number of workers. This type of unemployment often arises after economic recession or wartime.
(iii)Cyclical unemployment- This type of unemployment arises as a result of fluctuations in the business cycle. In other words, when there is a cyclical recession in advanced trade, workers have to withdraw from work, so it is called cyclical unemployment.
(iv) Rural Unemployment – ​​The farmers in the village are engaged in farming work only for some time, the rest of the time there is no work for them, then it is called rural unemployment.
(v) Unemployment – ​​Sometimes more people are recruited in mills, factories and offices than required. Because there is less work for these people. Therefore, they get less facilities and salary, hence they are called under-employment.
(vi) Industrial Unemployment- Sometimes thousands of workers become unemployed due to strike of workers or lockout in industrial establishments by the owners, or due to closure of a mill or factory due to any other reason, more workers become unemployed, So it is called industrial unemployment.

Que. 32. Discuss the obstacles in the way of national integration in India.

Ans. The obstacles in the way of national integration in India are as follows:
(i) Communalism—Communalism poses a threat to the Indian society in the following ways:
(a) The feeling of communalism plays an important role in the political elections in the society. Almost all political parties give importance to communalism while selecting their candidates.
(b) Voters in the society also vote by being influenced by their religion. Sometimes religious fatwas are also issued that the people of such community should vote for such candidate or such party.
(c) Political conflicts and communal conflicts take place from time to time in the country in the name of religion and a violent atmosphere is created in the country.
(ii) Regionalism – In simple words, regionalism means that small area in any part of the country which is aware of its separate existence due to geographical, social and economic reasons. In the language of political science, regionalism is expressed in the following way: In comparison to nationalism, attachment to a particular region or a smaller area than a state or province, having a special attraction towards it, etc. is called regionalism. The feeling of regionalism in India is prevalent throughout the country. In short, regional imbalance refers to a situation when all the regions in a country do not progress and develop equally. In India, Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh are backward regions while Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh are developed regions.
(iii) Casteism – Casteism is a great evil of Indian society. Its birth can be taken from the Varna system of ancient times. In the beginning, the Varna system was formed on the basis of Karma, but gradually its basis took the place of Karma by birth and then in the form of Varna system. Raja Rammohan Roy, Swami Dayanand and Mahatma Gandhi tried to end the discrimination of high and low, but it still exists in the society. Vote bank politics has made its appearance even more corrupt. Indian politics is highly influenced by today’s caste system. ..


Que. 33. Describe the objectives of Hindu marriage.

Ans. The main objectives of Hindu marriage are as follows:
(i) to enter the householder, (ii) to live together, (iii) to carry on the lineage, (iv) to have a son and daughter, (v) to establish a family, (vi) to have sex, (vii) ) For the development of kinship, (viii) To maintain a stable way of life


Que. 34. What is joint family? Discuss its merits and demerits.

Ans. Joint family is called the extended family, which includes parents, grandparents, uncles and aunts, brothers and sisters, cousins ​​and unmarried siblings. Thus in a joint family members of several generations have a common residence and all the members of the family have a common kitchen and have common property. There are also some merits of joint family which can be understood as follows.
(i) Benefits of Division of Labor Every member of the joint family can work according to his wish and interest and thus division of labor is possible. Which member type of work is more
The one who can do it efficiently is assigned the task there.
(ii) Elementary school of citizenship – The future citizens of the country can get good education in joint family. It is here that children learn to live together, to help each other, and to have a feeling of mutual love.
(iii) Assurance of financial security – In a joint family without parents, children, widows, old people, handicapped, unemployed and all kinds of handicapped etc. are maintained. Thus each joint family acts as a social insurance.
(iv) No division of property – In this system all the members live together. Therefore, the land is not divided into small pieces.
Defects of Joint Family- In joint family with many virtues, many defects are also found in them. Some of the major drawbacks of joint family can be understood as follows:
(i) Hurt the motivation of economic activity- Due to the certainty of minimum means of subsistence to each member in a joint family, some luxuriant and lazy persons take undue advantage. Due to which self-reliance and desire to do something on their own ends.
(ii) Obstruction in the mobility of the division of labor- Due to the attachment of the family, the members of the family do not want to go out, even if they have to live in vain. Thus the mobility of the division of labor is hindered. (iii) Family discord- In the joint family system, along with unity and cooperation, there is a greater possibility of mutual jealousy, hatred and discord etc.
(iv) Decrease in capital accumulation- The members of the family having no personal interest in saving encourages wastage among them which hinders the accumulation of capital.

Que. 35. Mention the current changes in the caste system.

Ans. Current changes in the caste system
(i) Reduction in the Bhutva of Brahmins – Most of the people do not consider caste to be a supernatural institution. The Brahmin castes themselves are now earning their livelihood through general service, agriculture, trade etc.
(ii) Changes in the caste hierarchy – The traditional structure of the caste-system has weakened. Today no caste is ready to consider any other caste as superior to itself.
(iii) Changes in the restrictions on eating and drinking – The rules related to eating and drinking and purity and impurity are almost finished. During the journey, there is an increased tendency to eat things made by the lower castes.
has been added.
(iv) Freedom in the choice of occupation – All the occupations in the Jagras are done by the people of all castes. Caste based occupations have ended.
(v) Change in the rules of marriage- Now the practice of inter-caste marriage has increased in the society. Earlier it was mandatory to marry within one’s own caste.

Que. 36. Throw light on the characteristics of tribal society.

Ans. This word tribe of English language is derived from Latin language word ‘tribus’.is made of. Originally it meant the division of the primitive Roman people into ‘tri’ or three parts. Later it was used for ‘poor’ and ‘people’s people’. In the English language it meant origin from a common ancestor. The present purpose of the term tribe began to be used in the 19th century when the colonial rulers referred to ‘tribe’ in most parts of Africa and some parts of Asia. characteristic of tribal community
(i) Each tribe has its own distinct language which keeps all the people of that tribe related to each other.
(ii) Tribe cannot be said to be a collection of only a few families, the size of most of the tribal community is very large. For example, Santhal, Gond and Bhil tribes.
(iii) Each tribe lives in a definite geographical area and its members do not want to move out of their territory.
(iv) Tribe is an endogamous group. No person of a tribe is allowed to marry outside his tribe.
(v) Each tribe has its own distinct religious belief practices and traditions. Thus there is a clear distinction between different tribes on cultural grounds.
(vi) The specialty of tribes is that their life is governed by their own rules and laws.
(vii) There is no hierarchy or caste distinction between the members of a tribe.








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