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Que.1. Distinguish between normal and abnormal.
Ans.” There is a difference in both quality and type between normal and abnormal behaviours. Following are the differences between normal and abnormal behaviours.
(i) The ordinary person behaves according to the situation. as in sorrow Crying and laughing in happiness. On the contrary, the abnormal person is in misery Laughs and cries in pleasant situations.
(ii) His own interest is hidden in the behavior of the common man. but
The lifestyle of an unusual person is unbalanced.
Que.2. What do you understand by biofeedback?
Ans. Biofeedback is primarily the process of gaining greater awareness of many bodily functions using devices that provide information about the activity of those same systems. For example, developing awareness of heart rate, learning how to control that physiological response in a calm system, etc.
Que.3. What is life skill?
Ans. LIFE SKILLS: To make your life more simple and easy, life is skill. The abilities of adaptive and positive behavior that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of daily life. The ability to withstand pressure depends on how prepared we are to maintain equilibrium in our lives.
Que.4. Write the nature of intelligence in Indian culture.
Ans. The nature of intelligence is widespread in Indian culture. it’s a holistic is the approach. The Indian culture emphasizes the coordination of both cognitive and non-cognitive processes in the intellect. According to Prof. J.P. Das, intelligence includes some special skills such as mental effort, definite action, cognitive abilities such as knowledge, discrimination and understanding etc. In this way, in addition to a strong cognitive element of intelligence, motivational and affective elements are also included.
Que.6. What do you understand by aptitude?
Ans. Aptitude is a major part of human potential. The special ability of a particular area is called aptitude. Aptitude is an adjustment of characteristics that reflects the ability of an individual to acquire knowledge or skill in a particular area after training. These specific abilities and skills of different fields, such as the ability to speak a language, the ability to become a musician and the ability to do mechanical work, are called aptitudes.
Que.7. What is illusion?
Ans. the perception of a person in the absence of an external stimulus It’s called an illusion. In this type of delusions, patients see God, gods and their dead relatives. They also get confused that their.The enemy wants to kill them with electric wire or by giving them poison.
Que.8. Explain the usefulness of aptitude test.
Que. Following are the usefulness of aptitude test
(i) For educational guidance – The importance of aptitude tests is seen in the field of educational guidance for children.
(ii) The utility of aptitude test for vocational guidance is also very much in the field of vocational guidance. Having a business suited to the aptitude, he gets professional satisfaction and success easily.
(ii) Aptitude for personal guidance
Testing also helps with individual guidance.
(iv) For the solution of clinical problems- Some clinical problems are profound. To solve them, along with intelligence test and personality test, aptitude test is also needed.
Que. 9. What do you understand by unconscious?
Ans.The unconscious is the largest part of the morphological aspect of the mind. unconscious mind
The nature of thoughts or desires residing in it is sensual, antisocial, immoral and disgusting. Since it is not possible to fulfill such desires and thoughts in day to day life. Therefore it is removed from the conscious and repressed in the unconscious. Where such desires do not end, but also tries to come into consciousness. Due to this anxiety, conflict and many types of psychological disorders arise.
Que.10. What is the Common Adaptation Trait?
Ans. Hans Selye to explain the physiological consequences of stress
A special pattern called the general adaptation syndrome has been introduced. According to this model there are three states of stress
(i) the state of conscious response, (ii) the state of resistance and
(iii) The state of restlessness.
Que.11. How does stress affect our health?
Ans. Stress badly affects our health. sympathetic to
The nervous system is activated leading to the release of adrenaline and noradrenaline, increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, increased muscle tension. The flow of blood starts towards the skeletal muscles of the internal organs, digestion slows down or stops. Much of the sugar is released by the liver. The person suffers from high blood pressure and sugar disease and becomes heart patient. This person becomes a victim of maladaptive behavior and mental disorders.
12. What is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy?
Ans. According to cognitive behavioral therapy, the cause of mental illness is wrong cognition and thinking. Therefore, if the wrong cognition or thinking is removed and the right cognition or thinking is developed in the patient, then the disease will automatically end. There are two main types
(i) Rational Emotive therapy and (ii) Beck’s cognitive therapy.
Que.13. Explain the meaning of obedience.
Ans. also in the form of obedience to authority
Social impact is seen. Obedience means obeying the orders of a legitimate authority. like war
In the field of soldiers obey the orders of their officers.
Que.14. Describe the functions of the group.
Ans. The general functions of the group can be divided into the following parts
(i) The main function of the group is to satisfy the needs of its members.
(ii) (ii) The possession-need of the individual is fulfilled by the group.
(iii) (iii) Group satisfaction of the affiliation or affiliation-need of its members
(iv) Achieving the group goal is an important task of each group. Groups act as an important means in the socialization of the sinner
Que.15. Describe the effect of water pollution on human behavior.
Ans. Water is essential for life. This has been proved by various studies
It is believed that when a person consumes polluted water, it affects his brain development, which increases the risk of mental retardation. Due to drinking contaminated water, a person suffers from many diseases like jaundice etc., due to which physical weakness, irritability, egocentrism etc.
It proves to be a hindrance in relationships.
Que.16. Explain the meaning of specific skill.
Ans. A specific skill refers to a skill that is specialized in a particular way.
psychologist is needed. For example, it is necessary for a clinical psychologist to be trained in medical techniques, psychological measurement, counseling etc. and acquire competence related to them. The specific skills required to be an effective psychologist are as follows
(i) Communication Skills (ii) Psychological Testing Skills (iii) Interviewing Skills
and (iv) counseling skills etc.
Que.17. What do you understand by communication skills?
Ans. the process of transfer in the form of communication from one person to another
is called communication. Communication skill refers to such a skill in which the communicator is able to communicate his thoughts and feelings exactly to the receiver of the communication and the receiver of the communication is also able to extract the same meaning of his thoughts and feelings which is necessary for communication. it happens. If one is proficient in communication skills, he/she will reach the highest heights of success.
Que.18. What are the interview stages?
Ans. Following are the stages of the interview
(1) Beginning Stage- In this stage the interviewer prepares for the interview. For this he tries to establish a romantic relationship with the patient.
(ii) Middle Stage – In this stage the interviewer patient
realistically represent. Here the patient is asked the necessary question. suitable from a clinical point of view.
(iii) Closing Stage – This stage of the interview
It is the last stage in which the interviewer pays attention to the following points.
(a) The conclusion obtained from the interview is clearly expressed. (b) The interviewer thanks the patient while leaving him
And send him off with that affection.
Que.19. Mention the objectives of therapy.
Ans.The purpose of therapy or psychotherapy in psychology is to improve the mental health of the patient.
Self-realization and ability etc. have to be developed in him by overcoming the problems. Its main purpose is to generate insight in the patient, to reduce mental conflicts, to change the environment, to help in the change of perceptions, to help in emotional catharsis, to help in the change of undesirable habits, etc.
Que. 20. Describe the causes of abnormal behavior.
Ans. Following are the causes of abnormal behavior
(A) Biological Causes Biological factors play an important role in the origin of abnormal behavior. Such factors are present directly or indirectly in the individual at birth or before that and lead to abnormal behaviour. These factors include chromosomal abnormalities, defective genes, endocrine imbalances, biochemical imbalances, etc.
(B) Psychological Causes: The reason for the origin of abnormal behavior is also psychological. There are many psychological and interpersonal factors that play an important role in the origin of abnormal behavior. These factors include early deprivation, insufficient fertility and pathological family structure. Certain models have also been described by psychologists to explain the origin of abnormal behavior. Among these models, the psychodynamic model, the behavioral model, the cognitive model and the humanistic-existential model are prominent.
(C) Socio-cultural causes in the origin of abnormal behavior
Socio-cultural factors also play an important role. These factors include low socio-economic status, economic difficulties and unemployment, problems of poor social relations etc. Various studies have shown that poor social relationships lead to depression, marital problems lead to alcoholism and psychosis, low socio-economic status leads to anxiety disorders, etc. It is clear from the above description that there are many reasons for the abnormalities.
Que.21. Describe the morphological aspects of Freud’s mind.
Freud has divided the human mind into three parts in his personality theory, which are as follows:
(A) Conscious – Consciousness refers to that part of the mind
In which all the feelings and sensations of the present are present. as a result
The conscious represents the small and limited aspect of the personality.
(B) Subconscious – Subconscious means such mental level
which is neither wholly conscious nor wholly unconscious. There are such desires, thoughts, feelings etc. in this, but on making efforts, they come in our conscious mind. Its size is slightly larger than the chetan.
(C) Unconscious – The unconscious is the largest part of the morphological aspect of personality mind. According to Brown- ‘The unconscious is that part of the mind, in which such thoughts or mental actions are there which the withdrawing person is not able to do voluntarily, they either appear automatically or they can be controlled.
Que.21. Describe the merits and demerits of verbal intelligence test?
Ans.Verbal intelligence test is called that in which language has to be used.
Yes, there are many questions in it which are written in some language. On the basis of the answers given or selected by the applicant, their intelligence is tested?
Merits The following are the qualities of a verbal intelligence test
(i) It measures more abstract intelligence.
(ii) Verbal personal test makes it possible to measure the intelligence of a person accurately.
(iii) The intelligence of many persons by verbal group test in a short time
It is possible to measure simultaneously.
Demerits are the following defects in the verbal intelligence test
(i) It is not possible to measure the intelligence of illiterate children or persons by this test.
(ii) Such testing is restricted to a single culture.
(iii) It takes more labor and time.
Que.22. What is stress? Discuss the ways to remove it.
Ans. Sarason and Sarason (Sarason and Sarason, 2003) have defined stress. According to him, “When a person is unable or incapable of performing the required action or reaction to an external situation, then the emotion or reaction that arises from it is called stress. The following are the plans or measures to remove, manage or deal with stress
(i) Family Program Stress can be removed through family management or programme. Under this program, in the first step, possible cause of stress is discovered. In the second phase, the family members are instructed to have the necessary management skills to solve this problem. In the third stage, the family members discuss this topic. In the fourth stage, along with other family members, the victim is also included in the investigation and a suitable measure is found for intervention. In the last stage, with the active efforts of other members of that family, he is able to avoid stress.
(ii) Occupational recourse Occupational recourse is a measure to avoid or overcome stress. When a person suffering from stress is engaged in some occupation or work, his attention is diverted from the problem causing the stress to the occupation or work, which gives him relief.
(ii) Changes in cognition—to the cognizance of the person for the treatment of stress
It is necessary to bring change. When a person brings changes in his cognition according to the situation, he gets freedom from stress to a great extent.
Therefore, stress can be controlled or restricted through the above measures.
Que.23. Describe the causes of distortion of enthusiasm-depression.
The reasons discussed by psychiatrists are as follows
(i) For studies of lineage-tradition- Slater, Pressey etc.
It can be said on the basis that the lineage-tradition has a hand in the origin of this mental disease.
(ii) Psychological Element—this mental disease
Psychological factors play a special role in the origin of The psychological factors include family environment, balanced development of surrender tendencies, feeling of anxiety etc.
(iii) Self-establishment and inferiority complex – Adler explained this mental disease on the basis of self-establishment and inferiority complex.
(iv) Psychosexual development ______ Freud has explained this mental disease on the basis of regression and super ego.
(v) Helpless condition____A person, if for any reason
If you start to feel helpless, then there is a possibility of this disease arising even in these circumstances.
Que.24. Explanation of SM Mohsin’s two-stage concept of attitude change
How does it? Describe an example.
Ans. SM Mohsin’s two-stage concept of attitude change process
There are two levels in it which are as follows (A) The first level is of identification where a person is the one whose attitude has to be changed, the second is the one through whose influence the change in attitude takes place. The first type of person is called the target person and the second type of person is called the source.
(B) In the second stage, the source person’s attitude-in his behavior towards the object
Bringing change brings about a change in attitude. Now the target person observes or imitates it, then accordingly he changes his attitude towards the object of his attitude towards the object.
Example-Sangita reads in the newspaper that the biscuits she eats are injurious to health. But Sangeeta sees on television that her favorite film star appeals to people to eat the same biscuits of their choice and also to the people. Since he is one of Sangeeta’s favorite artists, she identifies with him and would like to emulate him. Now the artist wants to change the attitude of the people towards the said biscuit from favorable to unfavourable. Then the artist will show a positive attitude towards his fans and then he will recommend to eat another biscuit as this latter biscuit is more tastier and healthier and will say that he himself has now started eating the same biscuit (first stage) if the artist If he changes his behavior, then there is a lot of hope that Sangeeta will also imitate her favorite artist.
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