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Que.1.Write about the huge bathhouse of Mohenjodaro.
The huge bathroom of Mohenjodaro is a beautiful example of brick architecture. This bath is 11.88 meters long, 7.01 meters wide and 2.45 meters deep. There are stairs at both ends to the surface of the reservoir. Small rooms are built around it. This bathhouse was used for ceremonial bathing. It was a public bath.
Que.2. . Mention the main features of Gupta art.
Sculpture, painting have an important place in Gupta arts.
Sculpture-Gupta sculptures depict objects related to Buddhism and events given in the Puranas. Stone and bronze statues of Buddha and Buddhist pillars have been found in abundance at Mathura and Sarnath. The most famous statue of this period is the one in which Buddha is giving his first sermon in a sitting posture. This idol is considered to be the rarest idol in India. .
Painting- Painting was also at the peak of its progress during the Gupta period. This art was used to decorate palaces and Hindu and Buddhist temples. The most beautiful examples of this art are the Baddha caves at Ajanta, Sugriya in Sri Lanka and the Bagh caves in Madhya Pradesh.
Que.3. Write about the conquests of Samudragupta.
The Harappan civilization originated in the north-west part of the Indian subcontinent. According to Ranganatha Rao, the extent of the Harappan civilization is 1600 km from east to west and 1100 km from north to south. This civilization extended from the Manda district of Kashmir in the north to the mouth of the Narmada river in the south and from the Makran coast of West Baluchistan to Meerut in the northeast. Its area is triangular and covers an area of about 1,299,600 square kilometers, which is definitely larger than Pakistan or Ancient Egypt or Mesopotamia.
So far, about 1000 sites of this civilization have been discovered, out of which the number of cities is only six. Among these, Harappa and Mohenjodaro were the most important cities. Other towns are Chanhudaro, Lothal, Kalibangan and Banawali. The remains of this civilization have also been found in Rangpur and Rojdi in the state of Gujarat.
Que.4. Discuss the expansion of Harappan civilization.
Samudragupta was one of the greatest rulers of ancient India. He followed the policy of his father and adopted the policy of Digvijay. He first conquered North India and included all the nine states of this region in his empire. After this, after conquering the state of Atavik, made the king his servant, after that defeated the kings of South India and returned their kingdom in return for accepting their subordination. He was a very visionary and understood very well that in those days due to lack of means of transport, it was not possible for the monarchical system to maintain control over such a large area. Therefore, it was considered appropriate to maintain friendly relations with those states. That’s why he is called the great ruler.
Que.5. Write a note about the Satavahana kingdom.
Simuka laid the foundation of the Satavahana kingdom in about 60 BC. This was the area between the Godavari and the Krishna River, which is now called Andhra. Shatakarni I was the most powerful ruler of the Satavahana dynasty. He performed the Ashwamedha Yagya and declared his sovereignty over the entire Deccan. Another famous king of this dynasty was Gautamiputra Shatakarni, who ruled in the early 2nd century AD. The Satavahana rulers called themselves Brahmins and were followers of Vishnamat. He used to donate generously to Brahmins. He also patronized Buddhism. Amaravati Stupa and Karle Chaitya were built during this period. From the literary point of view, Prakrit language emerged during this period. All the records of this period are in Prakrit language.
Que.6. Why were Buddhist councils convened? What is the significance of the Fourth Buddhist Council?
Ans. After the death of Mahatma Buddha, differences and internal conflicts started among the followers of Buddhism. To end this struggle, Buddhist committees or meetings were organized from time to time. In this way four sangeetas or meetings were convened. In this, the fourth Buddhist council, which was organized during the reign of Kanishka in the Kundalavan Vihara of Kashmir, is the most important. The great Buddhist scholar Asvaghosha was the chairman of this council. On the occasion of this council, Buddhism split into two sects Hinayana and Mahayana. Commentaries on Tripitaka were written on the occasion of this Sangeet.
Que.7. Write the names of any two Gupta temples.
Ans. Notable among the Gupta temples are (i) the temple of Sanchi, (ii) the Dashavatara of Deogarh.
Que.8. What do you know about Charvaka philosophy?
Ans. When the public started getting fed up with the Vedic rituals, the person started worrying in the present life after falling in the face of the upcoming birth, in such a situation, Charvak Muni gave his philosophy to the people that “Live as long, live happily and drink ghee by taking debt”. . In this way, the materialist Charvaka told the human being the way to live a blissful life in this world, leaving behind the concern of the hereafter. He said that there is no soul, there is no reincarnation and there is no other world. Leaving the worry of the hereafter, enjoy whatever happiness is in front of you.
Que.9. Describe the main features of Mansabdari.
The most striking feature of the Mughal system of governance was the Mansabdari system. Its creator was Akbar. The word ‘mansabdar’ was used for the official and this whole system was called mansabdari system. Under this system, the three main organs of Akbar’s rule, namely feudal, army and bureaucracy were organized in a common system. Mansab by Akbar. Couples were awarded with marks called Jaat Mansab and Sawar Mansab. Jat Mansab used to determine a person’s position or his seniority among the officials. Accordingly, his salary was also fixed. The military responsibility of a person was determined by the sawar mansab, that is, the number of soldiers under him was determined.
Que.10. Describe the achievements of Balban.
Balban has an important place among the early Turkic rulers of Delhi. Under him the work of consolidation of Delhi Sultanate was completed and Delhi was transformed into a powerful and well organized state. Balvan began his political career as a slave of Iltutmish and soon became the Prime Minister of the Delhi Sultanate on the strength of his ability and the Sultan after the death of Nasiruddin. He introduced the doctrine of new monarchy during his sultanate which was influenced by the Iranian rulers. He formed the Central Military Department and curbed the feudatories. Even the feudal lords were not untouched by his judicial system. He suppressed the internal rebellion and stopped the Mongol invaders from entering India. Balban did make the Sultanate powerful, but after his death his rule and dynasty came to an end.
Que.11. Name any two historical buildings of Vijayanagara Empire.
Ans.The following are the names of two historical buildings of the Vijayanagara Empire
(i) Kamal Mahal (ii) Jinji’s swinging pavilion.
Que.12. Write a comment on Jharokha Darshan.
Ans. The emperor used to start his day with some personal religious rituals at sunrise and then he would come to a small balcony, that is, a window facing east. Below it was a crowd of people in which soldiers, farmers, traders, craftsmen, sick, women with children waited to have a glimpse of the emperor. The purpose of Jharokha Darshan system started by Akbar was to awaken public confidence. Where any person high or low could meet the emperor and demand justice against the highest official.
Que.13. Describe the major influences of Bhakti movement.
Ans. Following are the major influences of Bhakti movement
(i) Unity was established between Hindu-Muslim.
(ii) There was a reduction in caste and untouchability.
(iii) The rituals were shocked
(iv) The importance of Guru was established.
(v) Hindi and provincial languages were developed.
Ans. Guru Nanak was born in 1469 AD in a village called Talwandi (Nankana Sahib) on the banks of river Ravi in Gujranwala district of Punjab. Like Kabir, Nanak also opposed religious fanaticism, rituals, incarnation, idol worship, high and low etc. and emphasized on the worship of Nirguna and formless God.
He was a strong supporter of Hindu-Muslim unity. He founded Sikhism. A new society based on earning a living by manual labor was established by Nanak. Nanak’s speech later inspired Guru Gobind Singh to establish a new religion based on broad principles. The collection of teachings of Nanak is in ‘Guru Granth Sahib’, which is the religious text of the Sikhs.
Que.15. . Name two buildings of Indo-Saracenic art built in Bombay during the British period.
Ans. The names of two buildings of Indo-Saracenic art built in Bombay during the British period were-
(i) Gateway of India (ii) Taj Mahal Hotel
Que.16. . Give an account of Ibn Battuta regarding slavery.
Ans. Ibn Battuta has mentioned slavery in his travelogue. He has written that like animals, slaves were bought and sold in the market. Slaves were also given as gifts. Ibn Battuta himself presented ‘slaves’ and ‘horses’ to the governor of Multan. There were different categories of slaves. Some slaves were hired for the special service of the Sultan, some were skilled in singing and music and some were skilled in spy work. This inhuman practice was prevalent in many countries of the world.
Que.17. Write a comment on Damin-e-Koh.
Ans. The Company government demarcated a large area in the foothills of the palace for the Santhals to settle in the jungles and declared it as the land of the Santhals, who were to live within this area and cultivate by plowing. This demarcated place was called ‘Damin-i-Koh’. It was the place between the plains and the hills which was to be cultivated by the Santhals.
Que.18. Who was Francis Buchanan?
Ans. Francis Buchanan came to India as Wellesley’s surgeon. He established a zoo in Calcutta which was later called Alipore Zoo. He was neither a historian nor a survey officer, yet at the request of the Bengal government, he surveyed the land under the jurisdiction of the Company. His surveys are a good source of the then history. Despite Buchanan not being a historian, his vision was historical. If its details were studied from a scientific point of view, then many historical facts could be obtained from it. Like foreign travelers coming to India, he had tried his best to present an eye-to-eye view of each incident.
Que.19. Write any four programs of non-cooperation movements.
Ans. Non-Cooperation Movement – Special session of Congress was held in Calcutta (Kolkata) in September, 1920. It proposed the boycott of government schools, official titles, courts and meetings. When this resolution was passed, the non-cooperation movement started all over the country. Mahatma Gandhi returned the title ‘Kesar-e-Hind’ given by the Governor General. Students boycotted classes. Many lawyers gave up their practice. Thousands of people returned titles like ‘Rai Bahadur’. Section meetings formed according to the new Act were boycotted. No one stood as a candidate in the Congress election. Most of the people did not vote. Foreign clothes and other items were boycotted. Holi of foreign clothes was burnt from place to place. Incentives were given to use indigenous goods. . When the Prince of Wales arrived in India in November 1921, the Congress boycotted him. There was a riot in the city as soon as he reached the port of Mumbai. Everywhere was greeted by strikes. In many places, the police broke the strike with sticks. By this time almost all leaders except Gandhiji were in jail.
Que.20. Write a short note on Bernacular Press Act.
Ans. The Vernacular Press Act was passed by Viceroy Lytton in 1878. The government’s Afghan policy, the famine of 1876–78 in which nearly six million people died, and Lytton’s neglectful policy in this regard were strongly criticized by the Indian press. Angered by this, Lytton passed the Vernacular Press Act to impose stricter control on Indian language newspapers. By this act (i) every Indian press was required to deposit security money with the government. (ii) The Magistrate could put an end to the publication of any newspaper which carried seditious material. This law was not applied to the English newspaper. This discriminatory policy was strongly opposed by the Indians. It was finally repealed by Ripon in 1882.
Que.21. Explain Quit India Movement.
Ans. The failure of the Cripps Mission caused despair and anguish among the Indians. Meanwhile, the position of the Allies had weakened in World War II. In such a situation, the threat of Japanese invasion of India was increasing. All these reasons increased panic and uneasiness among Indians. Gandhiji was keeping an eye on all these circumstances. It came to his mind that the only way to get the people out of this despair and panic is to start a non-violent movement. He demanded the government to ‘quit India’ and immediately hand over the haunted Indian. For this, the Congress session was held in Bombay and on the occasion of this session, on August 8, 1942, the resolution of ‘Quit India Movement’ was passed and under the leadership of Gandhiji it was announced to start ‘Quit India Movement’.
Que.22. What was the Poona Pact?
Ans. The British Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald, through the proclamation of the ‘Communal Arbitration’ in August 1932, inter alia, separated the Harijans from the Hindus and arranged for separate electorates for them. Gandhiji went on a fast unto death in the jail of Poona against this. As a result, a conference of Indian leaders was held in Poona. After much deliberation, a plan was prepared which was accepted by all the parties and Gandhiji and thus the ‘Poona Pact’ was signed on 26 September 1932. By this the separate representation of Harijans was abolished, but some special arrangements were made for them. For example, 71 seats were given to them by the communal decision, while 148 seats were reserved for them by the ‘Poona Pact’.
Que.23. Write any four reasons which were helpful in achieving Indian independence.
Ans. Following are the four factors that helped in the attainment of Indian independence (i) immense increase in the feeling of patriotism among Indians (ii) the weak condition of Britain after the second world war (iii) the awakening of national sentiment in the countries of Asia (iv) India of Britain’s public opinion standing for.
Que.24. Write a short note on Salt Satyagraha.
Ans. Immediately after celebrating Independence Day on February 26, 1930, Mahatma Gandhi led the Dandi march to break the state’s monopoly on the production and sale of salt, the most disgusting law of British India. Mahatma Gandhi started the journey after informing the Viceroy and became a criminal by making a handful of salt. Salt is a natural gift and taxing it is a curse. The government used to destroy the salt to prevent the use of unpaid tax. It was a tax on the vital need of the nation and it is an unjust policy to destroy what nature has produced without any labour, and in the event of not being able to use it itself, it is an unjust policy to destroy it by not allowing others to use it. To snatch the salt from the mouths of the people by destroying the valuable national wealth at the national expense is destruction.
Que.25. Explain the meaning and definition of constitution.
Ans. Constitution is a set of unwritten rules and laws based on all those written and traditions, on the basis of which the governance system of a country is formed and the functions and powers are divided among different organs of government and those principles are determined. According to which those powers are used. In other words, the constitution is the set of rules that achieve the objectives of exercising the power of governance and which constitute the various organs of governance through which the government exercises its power.
Que.26. How was the division of powers done by the constitution?
Ans. The Constitution provided for federal government in India. Powers were divided between the center and the state. 97 subjects were included in the Central List, 66 subjects in the State List and 47 subjects in the Concurrent List, on which both the State and the Center have equal rights. The residuary powers in the Indian Union rest with the Centre. Under Article 356, the Central Government was empowered to take over all the powers of the State Government on the recommendation of the Governor.
Que.27. Which two provinces of India were signed between India and Pakistan in August 1947?
Ans. The two provinces that were divided between India and Pakistan during 1947 are Punjab and Hyderabad.
Que.28. Mention the fundamental rights of citizens in the Indian Constitution.
Ans. 7 (seven) fundamental rights were provided to Indian citizens by the Constitution, but the right to property was abolished by the 44th Constitutional Amendment. After the end of the fundamental right to property, now citizens have got six fundamental rights, they are
(i) Right to equality.
(ii) Right to liberty.
(iii) Right against exploitation.
(iv) Right to freedom of religion.
(v) Right to culture and education.
(vi) Right to constitutional remedies.
Que.29. What do you know about the meetings and committees of the Vedic period?
Ans. In Vedic times, although the king was the supreme authority and powerful, but he could not be autocratic and autocratic, he was controlled by two democratic institutions ‘Sabha’ and ‘Samiti’. The Sabha was an organization of the representatives of the people as a whole and the Samiti was an organization of the elderly and the elite. According to Zimmer, the committee was the central assembly of the entire caste and the assembly was the representative body of the villages. It appears that the Samiti was an institution of the whole people or the world. In which the king was elected. The Sabha was smaller than the Samiti, consisting of senior and eminent persons of the society. In the later Vedic period, the powers of the kings had increased and the importance of these institutions started decreasing.
Que.30. What do you know about the meetings and committees of the Vedic period?
Ans. The following are the four names of the Eightfold Path of Buddhism:
(i) Right view – right thinking should be taken.
(ii) Right will should be right will.
(iv) Right action should be done.
(iv) Right speech – should be spoken correctly.
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