- class 12th psychology vvi subjective question answer 2022
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Que.1. What do you mean by good diet?
Ans.Good diet means those nutritious elements in the diet which are healthy from the point of view of health.
Be good and give energy. These nutrients are proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and salts. Food items containing these nutritious elements are a good diet.
Que.2. Distinguish between prejudice and discrimination.
Ans. Prejudices are negative attitudes towards a specific group and in many situations are based on stereotypes regarding the specific group. Discrimination is a form of social stratification.
Que.3. What is the meaning of drug addiction?
Ans. Drug addiction means taking a drug continuously and making a dependence on it.
from keeping. Boys and girls also start drug dealing because of curiosity and pressure from friends. It also affects the mental balance.
Que.4. What is air pollution?
Ans.At present, air pollution is being considered as the main source of many health problems and social problems. Like developed countries like America etc., the problem of air pollution is becoming serious in India etc.
Studies show that air pollution causes physical and psychiatric problems. Thus, the adverse effect of air pollution is not only on health but also on emotional and behavioral patterns. Mental health is more affected by various cooking fuels such as wood, coal, kerosene, chimney smoke, car exhaust.
Que.5. Describe the major types of aggression.
Ans. Aggression and Violence – The term aggression is used by psychologists to indicate any behavior that is done by a person/s with the intention of causing harm to another person/s. The main types of aggression are- (i) frustration, (ii) instinctive nature, (iii) personal reasons, (iv) anger-provoking actions by others and cultural. .
Que.6. What do you understand by self-realization?
Ans. The cognitive aspect of self is called self concept. self concept
In this, the individual makes a cognitive assessment of his physical, social and educational abilities. In self-concept, a person has a certain kind of belief and knowledge about himself. Thoughts about oneself, called self-concept, may be positive or negative.
Que. 7. What do you understand by self-realization?
Ans. The term self-actualization was originally used by Goldstein in the context of motivation. Maslow later used the term in the context of personality development. But there is no fundamental difference between the two. Of course, in Goldstein’s view it is a motivator, while in Maslow’s view it is a level of personality development. Broadly speaking, both agree that self-realization refers to independence, autonomy, a tendency to form close friendships, a philosophical sense of ridicule, resistance to external pressures, and the flourishing of the environment.
Que. 8. Write down the personality type according to Krasmer.
Ans. Krasmer has given three types of personality on the basis of anatomy-Krish body, athletic body and gross body. Such people are of irritable mood. The body of an athletic person is of average height. Such a person has the qualities of a normal person. A person with a fat and short body is called a gross body. Such people are peace-loving and happy-go-lucky.
Que.9. Describe conflict and frustration as sources of stress.
Ans. One of the main causes of stress is conflict and frustration. When a person is not able to achieve his goal then he feels frustration or disappointment which becomes the cause of stress. Similarly, different types of conflicts also become sources of stress. Conflict is a state in which two or more opposing motivations arise which cannot be satisfied simultaneously.
Que.10. What is behavioral therapy? be mentioned.
Ans. Behavioral therapy method was propounded by JV Watson. It is a major therapy method based on the laws of learning, especially classical conditioning and operative conditioning. Behavioral therapy believes that mis-adjusted behavior or mental illness arises due to wrong teaching. Therefore, by this method, mental patients are treated by bringing improvement in their behavior through teaching.
Que.11. Explain the meaning of social facilitation.
Ans. Social facilitation refers to a state in which when a person does a task in the presence of another, he feels a kind of convenience in doing that work and his performance is better in such a situation. The reason given by social psychologists is that the presence of other people increases the level of arousal and motivation in a person, due to which his performance increases.
Que.12. What is group conflict? Describe the reasons for this.
Ans. Conflict or conflict between two or more groups is called group conflict. There are many reasons for group conflict or group conflict. Among these, opposing group goal, anti-religious and social beliefs etc. are the main ones. The main reason for the communal conflict between the Muslim community and the Hindu community in India is the conflicting religious and social beliefs and lifestyles.
Que.13. Write a comment on positive health.
Positive health refers not only to a strong, strong body but also to be free from mental tension, conflict or distress. According to the World Health Organization, “Health is a state of well-being or well-being characterized by physical, cultural, psychosocial, economic and spiritual qualities and not merely the absence of disease. When a person is able to maintain himself in a balanced state by being influenced by all these factors, then his health is said to be positive.
14. What is Anxiety Psychosis?
Anxiety and mental disorders resulting from it in abnormal psychology
Most attention has been given. This type of anxiety gives rise to a variety of mental disorders, previously classified as a general diagnostic category. In the DSM-IV (TR), anxiety disorder refers to a disorder in which the client or patient has such high levels of unrealistic anxiety and irrational fear that it distorts their normal living behavior and involves the person expressing his or her anxiety. Does it quite clearly.
Que.15. What are the types of pressure?
ans. There are many types of stress or stress, in which the following are the main ones (1) Physical and environmental stresses are physical stresses like loss of appetite, feeling physical stress, injury etc. Similarly noise, air pollution, extreme heat or cold are environmental stressors.
(ii) Psychological pressure The sources of such pressure are internal, e.g., pressure arising out of conflict, anxiety, frustration etc. is called psychological pressure.
(iii) Social pressure – The pressure related to family or society is called social pressure.
It goes, like – death of someone in the family, family discord.
Que.16. Differentiate between introvert and extrovert personality.
ans. Jung classified personality as introvert and extrovert on the basis of mental qualities.
divided into types. An introverted person is shy, shy and self-centred. Individuals with such personality are solitary lovers. Conservatives are more and there is less need for relationship. Such personalities give more importance to old values. There is firmness in his thoughts. On the contrary, the need for promotion is more in extroverted personality. Such people are friendly. There is flexibility in their thought and behavior. There is more reality in these. They give more importance to new values. There is more generosity in them.
Que.17. Evaluate the self-report method of personality assessment.
ans.Self-report method is called the method in which a person
Gives information about itself. His personality is assessed on the basis of analysis of answers to the questions asked. If a person gives accurate information about himself, then the measurement of his personality is very accurate. The reason is that as much information as the person himself has about himself, no other person is able to get that much information. However, the flaw of subjectivity is found in this method.
Que.18. Explain the meaning of collective unconscious.
ans. The collective unconscious is a concept given by the age. Jung divided the unconscious into two parts—the individual unconscious and the collective unconscious. According to Jung, the individual unconscious of each individual is different, but the ethnic or collective unconscious is found the same throughout the human race. The collective unconscious is the inner part of the unconscious that has been present since the birth of the individual. In the collective unconscious, the desires of the ancestors of the individual and the effects arising out of their experiences are embodied which are called the sacraments of the individual.
Que.19. What is the role of Doordarshan in attitude change?
ans. Doordarshan is the most important mass media of modern times.
Everyone sees. A person gets many types of information through Doordarshan. On the basis of this information, the person develops an attitude towards the related event, object or person. For example, if a person is able to depend on the credibility of an object through the promotion of television, then the person develops an attitude of favorable behavior towards that object.
Que.20. What is Counseling Skills?
Ans. Counseling as a Service One component of many services related to instruction
is. Counseling enables a person to solve his various problems at his own level. According to Billy and Andrew, “Counseling is a process of mutual learning involving two persons. Counseling person is trained who helps in solving the problems of the person seeking counseling and in reaching his goal and can grow more in the same environment.
Que.21. Describe the model or theory possessed by the intellect.
Ans. Developing the Model Near Wisdom JP Das, Jack Naglieri and Kirby
done in 1994. This theory of intelligence is based on Luria’s analysis of the structures of the brain. This model of intelligence embodies four functions such as planning, attention-stimulation, synchronous cognitive process, and sequential cognitive process. By combining the first letters of these four, the PASS Model has been named. These four elements are as follows
(A) Attention-stimulus-stimulus state is a state in which a person pays attention to stimuli. As a result, he is able to process the information.
(B) Synchronous Processing – Synchronous processing occurs when one perceives the relationship between different concepts and integrates them into meaningful patterns from the point of view of perception. In this way synchronous processing helps in understanding the relationship between given abstract figures.
(C) Sequential Processing – In sequential processing, one basically arranges the stimuli in a specific sequential arrangement where each element is related to another element. It is needed in learning numbers and letters.
(D) Planning – When a person pays attention to a stimulus and processes it, then the action like planning begins and executes to reach the goal and evaluates its effectiveness. Thus it is clear that intelligence has a model to interpret intelligence through the processing of various cognitive processes in an appropriate manner.
Que. 22. Describe the main symptoms of psychosis.
Ans. The term psychosis is used for a group of neuropsychiatric reactions in which fundamental disturbances occur in the patient’s ability to make connections with reality and his emotional and intellectual processes. The main symptoms in patients with psychosis are:
(i) Emotional apathy – The patient of psychosis is emotionally apathetic. lives. Even if someone in his family dies, he does not feel any kind of grief.
(ii) Mental decline- All patients with psychosis are seen to have symptoms of mental decline. They are unable to understand their circumstances and cannot even tell their name, address etc.
(iii) Hallucinations – The main symptom of a patient of psychosis is hallucination. Many types of hallucinations are seen in the patients suffering from this, yet the predominance of conservational delusions in them.
(iv) Paranoia – Symptoms of paranoia are also seen in patients with psychosis. The patient feels that people are conspiring to kill him.
(v) Signs of speech disorder are also seen in the language-defective patient. His sentences are meaningless and long.
(vi) Loss of physical ability – The patient of psychosis is physically weak. He always feels lack of sleep. In this way, many types of mental and physical defects are found in the patient of Schizophrenia.
Que.23. Describe the merits and demerits of group intelligence test.
Collective intelligence test refers to a test by which the intelligence of more than one person can be measured at a time. Their intelligence is measured using tests on multiple subjects at the same time, collectively at the same place.
Properties of group intelligence test There are some special properties of group intelligence test, which are lacking in individual test. First, mass intelligence testing saves a lot of time and labor. It is possible to measure the intelligence of many users at the same time. Another group intelligence test (such as the Mohsin intelligence test) can also be used as an individual test. But, individual test cannot be used as group test. Third, group tests are very useful for measuring intelligence in situations like occupational selection, educational guidance, etc. .
Limitations – In spite of the above qualities, its usefulness in the mass intelligence test is limited. First, this type of test does not test the intelligence of a person properly. Because, it is not possible for the tester to give individual attention to each and every subject. Second, sometimes the usability does not understand the tester’s instruction properly. Third, it is even more difficult to measure the intelligence of young children with this test.
Que.24. What is Self? Describe its types.
Ans.Just as a person has a particular notion about another person, he also has a certain notion about himself. This concept is called self. There are following types of self or self
(I) Personal-Self – In this, a person has a particular belief about his self or soul whether it is good or bad, healthy or unhealthy. This same thought, or perception of him, is called personal concept or soul. The individual soul has a definite effect on the individual adjustment of the individual. .
(ii) Socio-Self-Social self means the self which is associated with social relations. Every person maintains a particular concept about his family and his society. Hence it is also called the family self or kinship self.
(iii) Cultural-self – This self is related to culture. Usually two forms are seen. Cultural self in Indian environment means to relate to oneself as well as one’s own culture and to have positive attitude with culture.
Que.25. Explain the difference between mind neuropathy and psychosis.
Ans.(i) Neuropathy is a simple mental disease. in this the patient
There is no significant difference in behavior. But psychosis is a complex and incurable mental illness. In this the personality of the person gets disintegrated.
(ii) Language and thinking are not defective in the patient of neurological disorder.
But in a patient of psychosis, the process of language and thinking is incompatible,
Irrational and pointless.
(iii) Self-control and self-restraint are found in the patient of neuropathy. But the patient of psychosis is not related to reality.
(iv) The relation of the patients of neuropsychiatric disorders remains with reality.
But the patients of psychosis do not care about the society.
(v) The symptoms of neurological disorder are temporary. but the psychosis
Symptoms are permanent.
(vi) Psychotherapy can be done easily by the techniques of hypnosis, signs, psychoanalysis, etc. of patients with neurological disorders. But there is no effect of the above methods in the treatment of patients.
(vii) The patient of neurological disorder has knowledge of his condition. but
The patient of psychosis is not aware of his condition. Thus it is clear that there is a big difference between psychosis and psychosis. This difference is of quantity. There is a difference in its form, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment etc.
Que.26. Explain the difference between mind neuropathy and psychosis.
Ans.There are two aspects of self expression which are called cognitive side and behavioral side. The meaning of the cognitive aspect is that a person makes assumptions about a stimulus according to his self. Therefore, the cognitive and behavioral aspects of the self can be divided into the following parts:
(i) Self-esteem – Self-esteem is a cognitive aspect of self due to which a person considers himself respected. Therefore, he behaves in a way that earns him respect and does not behave in a way that is unlikely to earn him respect. The deep influence of this soul aspect is seen on higher practices.
(ii) Self-competence Self-competence is an important cognitive and behavioral aspect of the self. A beautiful example of self competence is found in Bandura’s observational learning. He observed in the learning of aggressive behavior that after observing similar aggressive behaviours, some children learned to behave in the same manner. Some children did not learn.
(iii) Self-regulation Self-regulation refers to the ability of an individual to organize his behavior. Because, such people have the ability to bring changes in their behavior according to the environment.
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