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Que.1. Mention the main functions of the World Health Organization.
Ans. It is an organization to develop mutual cooperation and standards on health problems in the countries of the world. It is an important unit of the United Nations. The level of health of this is to be raised. The main functions of the World Health Organization are
(i) To act as a director and coordinator on international health related work.
(ii) To effectively cooperate and maintain cooperation with the United Nations as well as its agencies, government health administrations, professional groups and other organizations working in the field of health.
(iii) Strongly support the health services at the request of the Government.
(iv) To promote collaboration between scientific and professional groups that promote progress in health.
Que.2. What were the objectives of the Second Five Year Plan?
Ans. In the Second Five Year Plan, emphasis was laid on the development of heavy industries. Endurance was the core of the first plan, but the second plan tried to make structural changes at a rapid pace. For this, it was decided to change in every possible direction. The government imposed heavy duty on imports to protect the indigenous industries. This policy of patronage helped the private and public sector industries to flourish.
Que.3. What is SAARC?
Ans. SAARC or SAARC is an organization of countries of the Indian subcontinent or South Asian countries. Three quarters of the world’s population lives in these countries. SAARC has an important role to play in this time of globalization due to the reserves of natural resources and water resources and poverty, unemployment, terrorism and internal unrest in these countries. Non-aligned movement means not to join any country or group and not to appreciate or criticize the work of any country or group without thinking.
Que.4. What is Non-Aligned Movement?
Ans. A nation adopting the policy of non-aligned movement determines an independent foreign policy for itself. That nation decides good or evil, right and wrong with its conscience and not under the pressure or temptation of any nation.
Que. 5. What do you understand by Green Revolution?
Ans. The Green Revolution was started in India in 1967-68. In India, M.S. Swaminathan is considered to be its father. The purpose of the Green Revolution is to increase the production of crops by using high yielding hybrid and dwarf seeds in irrigated and unirrigated agricultural areas in the country. As a result of the Green Revolution, there was a significant increase in the production and total productivity of crops like wheat, sugarcane, maize and millet etc.
Que.6. What are the main functions of Panchayat Samiti?
There is a chief in the Panchayat Samiti. The chief is elected by the members of the Panchayat Samiti from amongst themselves. The head convenes and presides over the meeting of the Panchayat Samiti, exercises control over the executive officer to implement the decisions and recommendations of the Panchayat Samiti. The head Panchayat Samiti can sanction up to twenty five thousand rupees as relief to the people falling in the area at the time of natural calamity.
Que.7. Define secularism.
Ans. The ideal of secular state has been kept in the constitution to establish unity and bond among the people of India who believe in many faiths. It means that the state will protect all religions equally and will not consider any religion as the religion of the state itself. This secular objective of the state has been specifically ensured by the Constitution (42nd Amendment) Act 1976 AD by inserting the word “secular” in the preamble.
Que.8. What do you understand by socialist ideology?
Ans. Socialist ideology basically emphasizes on the belief that the means of production and distribution should be controlled by the society. The goal of socialism is to run the system through the control of society against individualistic control. Different views are given for this. Where Marx talked about scientific socialism based on class struggle, there is talk of democratic socialism in the present time. This ideology became popular in Britain under the name of Favian Socialism.
Que.9. What do you understand by judicial review?
Ans. The power of judicial review rests with both the High Court and the Supreme Court. Any order or decision of the government and any law made by the parliament which is against the constitution or the basic spirit of the constitution, then checks the validity of such order or decision of the government and the law made by parliament. It can also be canceled if necessary.
Que.10.What does domination mean?
The three words domination, power and power are similar to each other, but from the point of view of political science, the meaning of all three is different. Domination means the ability and ability to control the other and get them to behave as they want and to stop their wicked behavior. This is a story of politics which revolves around power. Even in world politics, different countries or groups of countries constantly try to gain and maintain power. If there is only one center of power in the international system, then it is more appropriate to describe it using the word supremacy.
11. Describe the main functions of the World Bank.
Ans. The new world order arrived after the Second World War. Aside Due to extensive damage, the condition of the countries became miserable, on the other hand new independent states emerged, which lacked resources. For the revival of these countries, the World Bank was established in 1965, which is headquartered in Washington. It has the following functions
(i) Providing financial aid and loans to developing countries,
(ii) to provide them technical assistance for constructive economic development,
(iii) To maintain balance in the field of international trade,
(iv) Enforcement of environmental protection and pollution control.
Que.12. Foreign Direct Investment. What is (FDI)?
Ans. In general terms, the investment made by a company of one country in another country is called Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). By such investment, the investors get some share in the management of the company in the other country in which their money is invested. For an investment to get FDI status, at least foreign investment has to buy 10% of the shares in the company. Along with this he also has to get voting rights in the investment company. There are two types of FDI inward and outward.
Que.13. Describe the different types of pollution.
Ans. Due to human developmental activities, the purity, cleanliness and balance of nature is disturbed, then it results in pollution and then we say that pollution is increasing and imbalance is prevailing in the earth. That is, pollution is the destruction or deterioration of the purity of the environment. In our daily life, we come across many types of pollution, which are as follows- air pollution, water pollution, land pollution, noise pollution, radioactive pollution, mining pollution, reservoir pollution, space pollution and industrial plant related pollution etc.
Que.14. What is stress hysteria?
Ans. The conflict between the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union,
Due to hostility and conflict, the situation of Cold War arose. The main reason for this was that the United States was a supporter of the ideology of liberalism, while the Soviet Union was in favor of the ideology of socialism, but gradually the situation improved, mutual cooperation and coordination increased, the heat of the Cold War decreased, which was named as Tension Depression.
15. Differentiate between uni-polarity and two-polarity.
Ans. The United States and the Soviet Union after World War II Emerge as superpowers. America was a supporter of liberals and the Soviet Union was a supporter of socialists. Both increased their power. More and more countries of the world have come under the camp of one superpower. An open contest ensued between the two as they were rivals against each other. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the two polarities also disappeared. Only American dominance was established.
Que.16. What do you understand by glasnost and perestroika?
Ans. Gorbachev’s leadership was established in the Soviet Union in March 1985. They
Presented his new idea. He restored the freedom of the people and rebuilt the economy. Glasnost means open society. Perestroika means economic innovation. Thus ended the system that had been going on since the time of Lenin, by which people were made like dumb and deaf animals and the private economy was completely abolished. In Gorbachov’s view, this was the only way to save the falling socialist state.
Que.17. What do you understand by third world?
Ans. The people of the third world saw the Non-Aligned Movement as a third option. The third world does not even mean practicing neutrality religion. Such countries do not engage in war, nor do they have any side about the right and wrong of war. Third world countries including India for many reasons. have joined the war. These countries have worked to avoid war between other countries and made efforts to end the ongoing war. The Non-Aligned Movement played an important role in providing peace, stability and prosperity in the development of third world countries.
Que.18. What is sito?
Ans. SEATO The full name of this treaty organization is the South-East Asia Treaty.
The organization is (South-East Asia Treaty Organization). The main objective of this treaty in 1954 is to stop the increasing Chinese precipice in South-East Asia and to make proper preparations for this purpose. Philippine in it. Thailand, England, France, Pakistan, Australia, New Zealand and America etc.
Que.19. What compelled Gorbachev to reform the Soviet Union?
Ans. The following reasons forced Mikhail Gorbachev to reform the Soviet Union
(i) To develop information and technology in the Soviet Union like the western countries.
(ii) Gorbachov considered it necessary to normalize relations with Western countries in order to reduce military expenditure and use national resources for development purposes.
(iii) The effect of the end of the communist governments in Eastern Europe outside the Soviet Union was natural to have on the Soviet Union, the political crisis deepened inside the Soviet Union. Gorbachov carried out a policy of economic-political reforms within the country so that democratization could happen and the discontent among the people could be ended.
Que.20. What does American supremacy mean?
Ans. American supremacy in the contemporary world With the end of the Cold War, the United States emerged as the world’s largest power. Now the power to compete with him did not exist in the world. post cold war
The period came to be called the Age of American Supremacy or a Polar World.
Que.21. What were the challenges of a new nation like India after independence?
Ans. Following are the challenges of a new nation like India.
(i) The challenge of adopting a model for the development of the country.
(ii) The challenge of implementing both the policy of economic development and economic social justice.
(iii) The challenge of harmonizing diverse ideas and theories.
(iv) To establish harmony between different religions and sects.
Que.22. What is the national interest?
Ans. National interest refers to the interest of the country on the basis of which foreign policy
is determined. Every country adopts an approach towards international events keeping in mind its national interests such as security, growth, stability etc. According to the Booking Institute, “National interest is that interest which a nation considers necessary for its security and efficiency—the national interest”.
Reflects the simple and lasting objectives for which a nation works.” Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (1875–1950) was the Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister of independent India.
23. Write a note on Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.
Ans..Sardar Patel wanted to see the center very powerful. He successfully conducted the challenging task of merging the native princely states into India. He is called the Iron Man of India. His great personality and successful contribution is unparalleled. He was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna in 1991.
24. The Indian National Congress party remained in power after independence.
ans. After the death of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in 1964, the Congress party lacked a miraculous and efficient leadership. As a result, the Indira Gandhi government of the Congress Party remained at the center in the 1967 elections. But in the assembly elections of the states, the opposition parties of the Congress came together in power and formed the government. In which the government of the opposition party of Congress was formed in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana and Orissa. But in the 1971 elections, the Congress party again got a huge majority. The forced government of Congress was formed at the centre. In the Legislative Assembly elections of 1972, the Congress again gained power in the states by getting a huge majority. In this way the Congress regained its lost mass base, this is what the Congress
Re-establishment or dominance of the system.
Que.25. Explain the meaning of Congress Syndicate.
Ans. Syndicate After Nehru, a group of powerful leaders emerged from the Congress
who belonged to different states and had control over the Congress organization. Chief among these leaders were Kamaraj from Madras, SK Patil from Maharashtra, Nijilagappa from Karnataka and Arun Ghosh from West Bengal. After the death of Nehru, the leaders of the Syndicate had a major role in making Lal Bahadur Shastri and Smt. Indira Gandhi the Prime Minister. The leaders of the syndicate were convinced that Mrs. Indira Gandhi would be a weak Prime Minister due to her inexperience and would take pride in her advice.
Que.26. For the first time after the 1977 elections, the government of the opposition party was formed at the center. For what reasons was this possible?
Ans. In the Janata Party led by Jayaprakash Narayan, the opposition party’s government was formed in 1977 due to the undemocratic work and repressive policies of the present government, along with joining the big leaders of the Congress who opposed the Emergency.
Que.27. Who is the Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha?
Ans. The party which does not join the government in Lok Sabha. Those parties are called opposition parties. A leader is elected by the opposition parties in the Lok Sabha, who is called the Leader of the Opposition. To be an opposition party, it is necessary that that party must have at least ten percent of the total members in the Lok Sabha.
Que.28.What is the global temperature?
Whenever there is an increase in the temperature of the earth, the possibility of many problems increases. Due to the increase in carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, the temperature rises, the ice can melt and brings the possibility of catastrophe closer. Therefore environmental protection is necessary. For this, it is responsible for green house gases and unbalanced exploitation of natural resources.
Que.29.Give a brief introduction of Rajiv Gandhi.
Ans. Rajiv Gandhi was the child of Feroze Gandhi and Indira Gandhi. He was born in 1944. After 1980, he joined active politics of the country. After the assassination of his mother Indira Gandhi, he became the Prime Minister of the country in 1984 with an overwhelming majority in an atmosphere of nationwide sympathy and he remained the Prime Minister till 1989.
He made a pact with Longowal, a supporter of liberal policies against terrorism in Punjab. He was successful in negotiating with Mizo rebels and student unions in Assam. He was assassinated in 1991 by Tamil extremists. He made a significant contribution in the field of information technology.
Que.30. Describe the similarities of the Indian National Congress and the African National Congress party of South Africa.
Ans. Indian National Congress was born in 1885. This political party played an important role in the Indian freedom struggle. As a result of which India became independent on August 15, 1947. Gandhiji’s role was also prominent.
The National Congress Party of South Africa played an important role there. Like Gandhiji, Nelson Mandela, the leader of the African National Congress, also liberated South Africa after being imprisoned for years for independence. Thus the Congress Party of India and South Africa. Two similarities are prominent in the K National Party (i) at the all-national level, (ii) strong organization at the national level.
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