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que.1. Define Adulterated Food
ans.. Adulteration or adulteration is a process by which the quality, nutritiveness or nature of food is changed. This change comes due to the addition of some other similar substance to the food item or the removal of any element from the food item.
2. The full name of B.C.G. is Bacillus Comet Guerin. BCG vaccine prevents tuberculosis or tuberculosis. All newborns are vaccinated with BCG for one month immediately after birth.
Ans. Colostrum is the mother’s first milk, which is like nectar for the baby, it protects the baby from various diseases and increases immunity. The amount of immunoglobulins in colostrum is higher than in milk, which protects the baby from infection with various micro-bacterial-viruses and protects against diseases.
Que.4. Balanced Eating
ans.. The diet in which all the food groups such as energy-giving and body-building, protective food are in proper quantity. By which a person gets all the nutrients in minimum quantity, it is called balanced diet.
Malnutrition literally means “disordered nutrition”. When a person does not get all the nutrients in the appropriate quantity according to his physiological needs or does not get more than the requirement, then it is called malnutrition. Malnutrition affects the growth, development and functioning of the human body.
ans. . Agmark measures the quality and purity of agricultural products. Agmark means agricultural sales. The quality of a product is judged by its size, variety, production, weight, colour, moisture, fat content and other chemical and physical characteristics. Agmarked products can be purchased from retail stores, supermarkets and departmental stores. Some of the Agmark products are rice, wheat, pulses, coconut oil, groundnut oil, mustard oil, pure ghee, butter, honey, spices etc.
ans.Diphtheria is a very dangerous infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Coryne Bacterium Diptherae. These bacteria enter the body and grow in the throat and cause symptoms of the disease in the child.
Que.8. Polio (OPV)
ans.The oral polio virus vaccine developed by Sabin is used worldwide to prevent polio and paralysis. A single dose of OPV contains a median number of molecules from 10 to 106. This medicine is given in three types in liquid form. The first dose is given at birth. The second and third doses are given every 4 to 8 weeks.
Que.9. Permanent teeth.
ans. After 20 temporary teeth erupt in the child, the permanent teeth emerge. When these temporary teeth break down, they are replaced by permanent teeth. These teeth start to erupt from the age of six. Permanent teeth continue to erupt until the age of 25.
Que.10. What is Tetanus disease?
This disease is mostly caused due to injury by falling on rusty metal pieces. Tetanus bacteria also stick with dust and soil. If the patient is not given tetanus injection immediately, then this disease occurs. The bacteria of this disease affect the muscles more.
Que.11. What is advertising?
ans.By advertising the product of the seller, the company resorts to it for the purpose of informing the consumer about their goods and increasing sales. Advertising has a good effect on the consumers. Especially when the advertisement is good to see, illustrated and in the form of good words or slogans. It is the duty of the manufacturers not to spread false and misleading publicity with the aim of increasing the sales of their goods.
Que.12. Complete Nutrients and Micronutrients.
Complete Nutrients Nutrients needed in large quantities by the body. Such as carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
as vitamins and minerals.
Que.13. What do you understand by overnutrition?
Overeating is that state of nutrition in which obesity occurs, high blood pressure, stones and other heart diseases occur. This is called overnutrition. Even taking iodine and iron in excess amount leads to monophthalmia and hypercythemia.
The following are the causes of overnutrition.
(i) overeating, (ii) high economic status, (iii) having faulty eating habits.
Que 14. Mildew
Mildew is a type of microorganism, which occupies the most important place among all the microorganisms that destroy grains.
: The temperature of the food items rises due to mold. They start to smell. Nutrient value is reduced. Taste deteriorates. Food becomes poisonous and toxic.
In cheese, fruit, bread and jam, mold gets deposited in the form of soft cover.
* Not all mildew is harmful. It also enhances the taste of some foods.
Que. 15. What is a nutrient? What are its functions?
Nutrients. Those which provide nutrition according to the needs of our body, that is, give the required chemical energy, are called nutrients.
Following are the major nutrients
(i) Carbohydrate- It provides energy to the body.
(ii) Protein – It increases the growth of the body.
(iii) Fats – It provides three types of acids to the body
Its presence is necessary for the absorption of soluble vitamins in the body by (i) linolein, (ii) linolenic and (iii) arachidonic.
(iv) Calcium – It helps in bone development and strength.
Que.19. Shishu Sadan and Shishu Sadan on the go.
Ans. Shis Sadan.. The house where proper arrangements are made for the care of children is called Shishu Sadan. It is run by the government, voluntary organizations and business organizations. Because their aim is to earn money. That’s why they take care of the facilities of the children.
Shishu Sadan on the go – The baby house which is taken from one place to another is called Shishu Sadan on the go. For the working women, Shishu Sadans are made on the go at the work place itself.
Que.20.Rights of the consumer
Ans. All the goods in the society are for the consumers. The goods purchased by the consumer should not be harmful to them in any way. Some rights have been given to the consumer for these, they are-
(i) Right to Choice (ii) Right to Information (iii) Right to Safety (iv) Right to Healthy Environment (v) Right to Compensation (vi) Right to Consumer Education (v) Right to Grievance and Hearing the right to.
Que. 21. What is the Necessity of food in our life?
Ans. Food is very important in our life which are as follows
A. Physiological importance of food
(i) Food provides energy to the body – maintaining heat in the body. Energy is needed to provide the activity of muscles to perform physical work and to keep different parts of the body functional.
(ii) Food helps in physical growth and development – When the baby is born, it is from 2 kg to 3.5 kg and the length is 40-50 cm. By the time of puberty, it reaches 50-70 kg and 5-6 feet in length.
(iii) Food provides protection against diseases of the body – Food contains all the nutrients which perform protective functions for the body. These nutrients are present in all types of vitamins and minerals. The body gets the power to fight against diseases by staying in the food of these nutrients.
(iv) Food conducts, controls and regulates bodily functions – blood clotting in the body, control of body temperature, control of water balance, regulation of respiratory rate, heart beat, excretion etc. it happens.
(B) Social importance
(i) Food is a symbol of economic status – people of higher economic status
Eat expensive fruits, nuts, eat in big hotels. Middle class people use seasonal fruits and vegetables. Show your financial status by organizing birthdays, marriages, festivals, meals.
(ii) Food is a sign of hospitality – hospitality is also done by food. Special and delicious food is prepared on the special Teej festival and express their happiness by organizing a feast.
(C) Psychological importance of food
(i) Expression of emotions by food – Emotions are expressed through food. For example, less food is eaten with a sad mind and more food is eaten when the mind is happy.
(ii) Food as a sense of security symbolizes a sense of security. Homemade food is not only nutritious and hygienic but also provides a sense of security.
Que.22. How would you take care of a newborn baby?
Newborn Baby Care After delivery, the newborn baby remains very soft and soft. Therefore it is looked after by female doctors, midwives and nurses in hospitals and midwives in the home. Newborn baby should be taken care of in the following way.
(i) First bath of a newborn Usually the newborn cries while taking the first breath after birth. But, sometimes a weak baby doesn’t cry. In this position, hold the baby’s feet and hang upside down and massage his back. Still, if not crying, both the above methods should be repeated and he should start giving artificial respiration. By doing this, the trachea opens well and the baby starts crying, as a result of which the respiration starts. After birth, there is a cord attached to the navel of the baby, which should be tied tightly with knots at two places at a distance of 6 to 7 cm from the abdomen by midwifery thread and in between it is sterilized sharp-edged scissors or blade or knife. should be cut off. Gentle violet medicine should be applied by applying Dettol on the cut area. After eight to ten days, the placenta dries up and separates from the navel. The body of a newborn baby is covered with a white wax-like substance, which protects it in the womb. Applying olive or coconut oil on the body of the child, wiping it with a non-infected absorbent cotton, clears the wax-like liquid. Then she should be bathed with lukewarm water and baby soap. At that time no water should fall on the navel. After bathing, the baby should be wiped with a soft towel. Cleanliness of a particular organ While giving the first bath to a newborn, it is necessary to pay attention to the cleanliness of various organs in the following way:
(a) Nasal cleaning
keep the respiratory tract clear for smooth functioning
(b) Cleaning the eyes – The baby’s eyes should be cleaned thoroughly by soaking an absorbent cotton swab dipped in boric acid lotion.
(c) Cleaning of the ears The outer parts of the ear should be cleaned by soaking clean and disinfected cotton in olive oil.
(d) Throat cleaning To clean the mucus collected in the throat of a newborn baby, wrap a soft clean cloth on the finger, dip it in boric lotion, and move it slowly around the throat. Cleaning of the lips and gums should also be done by applying glycerin in a soft cloth.
(iii) Weighing the baby- It is necessary to take the weight of the newborn after bathing. Normally a healthy baby weighs 3 to 4 kg at birth. As the baby grows, its weight increases.
(iv) ‘Setting up baby bedding – The newborn baby’s bed should be clean, soft and cuddly. So that the mattress of the bed is not wet with urine etc., wax should be laid on it.
(v) A sleep-healthy baby sleeps for 22 to 23 hours in 24 hours. Wakes up only when hungry or while passing urine.
(vi) Food of the infant- Mother’s milk is the best food for the infant. Normally a baby should be given breast milk from 8 hours after birth. Before that, the baby should be fed with a spoon or a finger by mixing honey and glucose. Colostrum, a yellow and protein-rich substance, comes out from the mother’s breasts for two to three days after delivery, which helps in speeding up the digestion process of the baby. It also cleans the stomach of the child. He should have triple antigen and polio vaccine and primary vaccination within 3 months at a fixed time.
Que. 24. Give comparative details of home delivery and hospital delivery.
Ans.Home Science has the following uses for self-employment
(i) Opening Printing – By using the principles, rules and methods taught in home science, economic benefits can be obtained by opening the block-printing and binding.
(ii) By opening a crcha – a crche can be opened by knowing the method of opening a crche, the necessary equipment and programs.
(iii) By making soap and detergent – women can earn money by doing this work by organizing systematically and intelligently.
(iv) By doing conservation related business – women can earn money by improving their economic condition by making jam, jelly, pickle, marmalade etc.
(iv) By having the knowledge of designing the latest clothes by sewing clothes (boutique), one can earn money by sewing different types of clothes. Along with this, one can earn money by doing embroidery, weaving sweaters, binding books in books, making flowers and leaves of paper, dyeing clothes in different ways.
(v) Opening drawing and dry cleaning – Women can earn money by doing home science studies by washing different types of clothes as well as doing dry washing. (vii) By conducting training classes – Having sufficient knowledge of the sub-disciplines of home science, women earn money by opening and running training classes efficiently, such as cookery classes, stitching classes, preservation and canning classes, as well as sewing classes etc.
(viii) Establishing small scale industries – By studying home science, women can also earn money by setting up small industries, such as weaving clothes, weaving carpets and carpets, making candles etc.
Ques. 25. What are the contributions and utilities of home science in various fields of development?
Ans. Following are the contributions of home science in various areas of development: (1) In the upliftment of the family level-