Que.1. What do you understand by archaeology?

Ans.Archaeology is a historical source. All materials obtained from excavation are called archaeology. Deaths in it. Inscriptions, bone remains, pottery, stone tools etc. All these things are considered to be the primary historical source of the period to which they belong.

Que.2. Describe the town planning of Indus Valley Civilization.

Ans. The Harappan civilization was an urban civilization, as the remains of a planned city have been found from here, which was nowhere in the then world. The entire Harappan city site was divided into two parts, upper and lower city area. Remains of administrative buildings have been found in the upper or fort area and the remains of residential buildings have been found in the lower town area. roads found at the Harappan city site; The remains of streets, residential buildings, drains, baths, granaries, etc. indicate a modern city.

Que.3. What do you know about the carbon-14 method?

Ans. The scientific method of date determination is called carbon-14 method. This method was discovered by the eminent American chemist B. It was done by F. Livy in 1946 AD. According to this method, carbon-12 and carbon-14 are found in equal amounts in any living thing. In the event of death or destruction, C-12 remains stable, but C-14 continues to decay. The lesser the amount of carbon-14 in the substance, the more ancient it is considered.

Que.4. What did Ashoka do for the propagation of Buddhism?

Ans. After the Kalinga war, Ashoka worked with body, mind and money to spread Buddhism. Ashoka made pilgrimages to Lumbani, Kapilvastu, Gaya, Kushinagar and Sravasti, the places of pilgrimage related to the Buddha and himself followed the principles he preached. Ashoka inscribed the rules of Buddhism on stones, pillars, caves. He built many stupas. He gave financial assistance to Buddhist monks. To remove the inner foot of Buddhism organized the third council of Buddhists at Pataliputra. For the propagation of Buddhism, preachers were sent to different parts of India as well as abroad.. Thus Ashoka made Buddhism a world religion.

Que.5. . Write about the huge bath at Mohenjodaro.

Ans. The huge bathroom of Mohenjodaro is a beautiful specimen of brick architecture. This bath is 11.88 meters long, 7.01 meters wide and 2.45 meters deep. There are stairs at both ends to the surface of the reservoir. Small rooms are built around it. This bathhouse was used for ceremonial bathing. It was a public bath.

Que.6. Describe the town planning of Indus Valley Civilization.

Ans. The Harappan civilization was an urban civilization, as the remains of a planned city have been found from here, which was nowhere in the then world. The entire Harappan city site was divided into two parts, upper and lower city area. Remains of administrative buildings have been found in the upper or fort area and the remains of residential buildings have been found in the lower town area. roads found at the Harappan city site; The remains of streets, residential buildings, drains, baths, granaries, etc. indicate a modern city.


Que.7. Write four archival sources of Mauryan history.

Ans. Following are the four archival sources of Mauryan history:
(i) 14 large inscriptions found from Kalsi, Shahbazgarhi etc.
(ii) Small inscriptions found from Maski, Gurjara
(iii) Small inscriptions found from Girnar
(iv) Pillar inscription obtained from Lauria, Areraj.

Que.8. Describe the property rights of women in ancient India.

Ans. In the Rigvedic period, the father had a monopoly on the property of the family, after the death of the father, the son used to get this right. In the Mahabharata, a woman had a right over movable property and she herself was considered movable property and was given as a gift to someone else. In the Mahabharata, Yudhishthira put his wife Draupadi at stake during a game and was defeated. Women had no independent rights over family property.


Que.9. Describe the features of the architecture of Vijayanagara.

Ans. The rulers of Vijayanagara made commendable contributions to the development of architecture. The climax of the temple building style in South India was achieved during the reign of Vijayanagara rulers. The best examples of this style can be named ‘Hazara Temple’ built by Devaraya II and ‘Vitthal Swami’s Temple’ built by Krishna Devaraya. Very ornate pillars were used in it. Particular attention was paid to the ornamentation of the gopurams and the pillars of the temple. Statues and pillars of Vijayanagara architectural style were made by cutting a single stone. Among them the ‘Ekagranath Temple’ of Kanchipuram and the ‘Rameshwaram Temple’ at Tadpatri are very famous for their beautiful gapuras. Many palaces and palaces were also built by the rulers of Vijayanagara, the remains of some of which can be seen in the capital of the empire, Vijayanagara (Hampi).

Que.10. What do you know about Kamal Mahal?

Ans. The Kamal Mahal is a beautiful building in Vijayanagara. The upper structure of this palace looks like a lotus. Therefore, the British travelers of the 19th century named it Kamal Mahal. It was probably used as a council where the king met his advisors. An elephant stable was built near the lotus palace. It was a huge building in length and also a huge specimen of architecture. The influence of Islamic building art is also visible on the architecture of the lotus palace and elephant stables.

Que.11. Write the importance of Mahabharata.

Ans. The development of Mahabharata did not end with the text of Sanskrit. Over the centuries, many versions of this epic were written in different languages. All these reflected the dialogue that took place between their authors, other people and communities. Many stories, which originated in a particular region and spread among particular people, were all absorbed in this epic. Along with this, many reinterpretations of the main story of this epic were done. Its themes were also depicted in sculpture and paintings. This epic also provided the subject matter for plays and dance arts.


Que.12. What do you know about Tripitaka?

Ans. ‘Tripitaka’ means three boxes of knowledge in Buddhism. The following are the Tripitakas:
(i) Sutta Pitaka – In this the teachings of Buddha are compiled.
(ii) Vinaya Pitaka—It contains the relevant rules of Buddhist sanghas.
(iii) Abhidhammapitaka—It describes the philosophy related to Buddhism.


Que.13. Write a short note on Ain-i-Akbari.

Ans. The Ain-e-Akbari is the most reliable, necessary and valuable book to study the land management of India in the 17th century. Originally it is the third volume of ‘Akbarnama’, written by Akbar’s court historian Abul Fazl. In fact, Akbarnama is technically a history book, whereas the Ain-i-Akbari describes the rules that Akbar made to run his administration properly. This is an important gazetteer about running the administration of Akbar like a modern day government information office.
In the Ain-e-Akbari, information about the government departments and various officials as well as the problems of ordinary people and the famines, calamities etc. The geographical survey of the Mughal Empire and the details based on the data in all the provinces comes from Ain-i-Akbari.

Que.14. Describe the condition of women during the Mughal period.

Ans. The condition of women was very bad during the Mughal period. They were not considered equal to men. In the elite class, women were only for pleasures and pleasures. They did not have freedom and the purdah system was prevalent. Child marriage, polygamy, Sati system, child killing of daughters etc. were prevalent. The woman was revered only as a mother. Devadasi system was prevalent. Lower class women also worked outside. Women also engaged in business and prostitution.

Que.15. Write a note on Takht-e-Taus.

Ans. In order to increase the glory of his court, a throne was built under the supervision of Shah Jahan Bewadal Khan. This throne was made of gold and precious things like diamonds, gems, emeralds, pearls, red etc. were studded in it. It is called the Peacock Throne or Takht-e-Taus. It is said that seeing this the eyes became dazzling. Shah Nadir Shah of Persia took it with him to Persia but unfortunately it is not available anywhere today.

Que.16. Into how many parts was the land divided in Ain-i-Akbari? any two
Write the name of

Ans. Classification of land in Ain-i-Akbari All cultivable land was divided into four parts, of which two are
(a) Polaj—It was the best quality of land in which cultivation was done every year.

(b) Padauti – In this cultivation was done at an interval of one year.

Que.17. What do you understand by Sufism?

Ans. The word Sufi is generally used for a Muslim saint or dervish. The word originated from the word Safa (holy) meaning a devotee of God who is free from all worldly evils. Some writers associate the word Sufi with safa (status) meaning a person who spiritually has a first-class relationship with God.
The basic principles of Sufism are found in the Quran and Hadith of Hazrat Muhammad. He considered Hazrat Muhammad Sahib as his incarnation and had full faith in the Quran. Nevertheless, after some time they adopted some ideas and traditions of other religions such as Christianity, Persian religion, Buddhism and Indian philosophy. After its development, Sufism became like a river in which small rivers of the surrounding areas come together.

Que.18. Write a short note on Kabir.

Ans. Kabir was born in 1425 AD from the womb of a widowed Brahmin woman. It is said that fearing public shame, he left Kabir near a pond near Lahartara in Varanasi. Thereafter, he was brought up by a weaver couple, Neeru and Neema. He named the child Kabir which is an Arabic word. Kabir means great. Realizing the adage of Naam and Kama, he propounded revolutionary ideas in the society by emphasizing on Hindu-Muslim unity. That is why he is also called revolutionary Kabir. Kabir fiercely opposed the evils and external pomp of both religions to end the discrimination between both Hindus and Muslims. Explained the importance of karma at the place of birth. He opposed all forms of inequalities. His thoughts are preserved in the book ‘Bijak’.

Que.19. Describe two characteristics of Lingayat sect.

Ans. Following are the two characteristics of Lingayat community:

(i) Lingayat is a part of the oldest Sanatan Hindu religion of India. This belief is based on the worship of Lord Shiva.

(ii) Most of the followers of Lingayats are in South India. This sect was founded by Basavanna in the 12th century.




Que.20. What were the main reasons for the establishment of European colonies in India?

Ans. The following were the reasons for the establishment of European colonies in India.
(i) Procurement of Raw Materials – Due to the commercial prosperity in European countries, to meet the shortage of raw materials for industries, European countries established colonies in India, full of natural resources.
(ii) Consumption of manufactured goods – Industrial production increased rapidly due to the establishment of industries and availability of raw materials. Therefore, colonies were also established to consume manufactured goods.
(iii) Propagation of Christianity – Along with the establishment of the colonies, along with the propagation of Christianity, Christians considered it their ultimate duty to convert non-Christians to Christians. Therefore, the Christian missionaries supported the establishment of colonies so that they could propagate the religion in new countries.


Que.21. Write any two characteristics of ‘Rehla’.

Ans. Moroccan resident Ibn Battuta wrote a travelogue on his return home after his visit to India. Ibn Battuta in Rehla has described Tughlaq as a harsh and ruthless ruler. He did it for petty offences. There is talk of amputating the limbs of criminals. Ilbattuta was also imprisoned due to some misunderstanding.

Que.22. What was the contribution of the Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah in the revolt of 1857?

Ans. The Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah had an important contribution in the revolt of 1857. This rebellion was fought under his leadership. Although he was weak and old, he took over the leadership of the rebels. They were symbols of the power of the rebels. Therefore, after the failure of the rebellion, he had to pay a high price. He was arrested and exiled to Rangoon where he died. His sons and grandsons were killed in front of him. The Mughal rule was ended for participating in the rebellion. In this way Bahadur Shah lost his life by participating in this rebellion.



Ques.23. Write a note on the Lucknow Pact of 1916.

Ans. During the First World War, the Congress session was held in 1916. Congress unity was established in this session, as well as a written agreement was reached between Congress and Muslim League which is called Lucknow Pact. The main reason for this was the desire of the Congress and the Muslim League to go together in the national movement. Tilak and Jinnah had an important role in making this agreement a success.
According to the agreement, the Congress accepted the League’s demand for a communal electoral system and more representation for the Muslims. Through the agreement, efforts were started for unity among Hindus and Muslims on national questions. But it could not be permanent.

Que.24. What do you know about Rani Laxmibai of Jhansi?

Ans. After the death of Gangadhar Rao, the company government took over Jhansi. This made the queen of Jhansi very angry. So when the rebellion started, the queen also joined it. When the British attacked Jhansi, she went to Kalpi with her minor adopted son. At both the places of Jhansi and Kalpi, the queen faced the British army valiantly. tranny disguised horses
Ni reached Gwalior and on that such heroine used to fight on the formation of the second Legislative Assembly. From Kalpi, the queen reached Gwalior. Got the right When the British attacked Gwalior, they attained martyrdom on January 17, 1858. There has never been such a brave person in Indian history.




Que.25. Write a note on Simon Commission.

The Constitution of India was established in 1927 under the chairmanship of John Simon. Its purpose was to review the work done towards the establishment of the government under the Act of 1919. All its members were Englishmen. It did not have a single Indian member. It was considered an insult to the entire Indian nation. Therefore, when the commission came to India in 1928, it was welcomed with black flags and the slogan ‘Simon go back’ was raised. While demonstrating against the Simon Commission in Lahore, Lala Lajpat Rai was injured by police sticks and later died. The Simon Commission in its report had suggested the establishment of provincial autonomy by abolishing the diarchy system.


Que.26. Describe the impact of the Revolt of 1857.

Ans. The revolt of 1857 was brutally suppressed by the British but its effect was on political, social and economic life. Politically, the governance of India was brought directly under the Crown. At the social level, the British abandoned their reformist policies and started adopting the policy of divide and rule. With the end of the British East India’s power at the economic level, large scale capital was invested in India by the British capitalists and the economic exploitation of India increased further.

Que.27. How was the Constituent Assembly formed?

Ans. On the recommendation of the Cabinet Mission, the Constituent Assembly was formed to frame the Constitution of India. In the Cabinet Mission Plan, it was decided that on the basis of “indirect election” for the making of the constitution, which would have a total of 389 members, out of which 292 would be representatives of the British provinces, 4 representatives of the Chief Commissioner’s areas and 93 representatives of the princely states.
According to the Cabinet Mission Plan, in July 1946, out of a total of 389 members of the Constituent Assembly, elections were held for a total of 296 members with 292 earmarked for the provinces, in which 208 of the Congress, 73 of the Muslim League and 15 of other parties and independent candidates were elected. The Muslim League boycotted the Constituent Assembly in view of its weak condition. In fact, the constitution of the Constituent Assembly was completed in three phases. Hyderabad was a princely state whose representatives were not amalgamated in the Constituent Assembly.

Que.28. What was the condition of women in the Rigvedic period?

Ans. In the Rigvedic period, women had great respect and respect. She used to get education according to her ability. Visvaara, Ghosha, Apala etc. have become so learned women that they composed the mantras of Rigveda. Women were considered householders and participated in all religious functions with their husbands. There was no custom of curtains. Women could move freely. There was no Sati system during this period. Polygamy was not prevalent. Women were also given military education. They also used to go to the battlefield with their husbands.



Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *